Fowler has a good overview of GUI architectures: https://martinfowler.com/eaaDev/uiArchs.html#HumbleView - note that this is at this point dated and does not cover the 'reactive' model.
He also recommends this survey: http://aspiringcraftsman.com/2007/08/25/interactive-applicat... (Haven't read it myself.)
Java also used to have a funky toy like thing in the beginning called Bongo (by a company called Marimba). It was a bit of a toy, but I found it an interesting, if flawed, take on scriptable GUIs. This is all I can dig up today: https://people.apache.org/~jim/NewArchitect/webtech/1997/10/... (If anyone here knows where I can download Bongo I'd hugely appreciate it. It was really fun to play with.)
Component models are a huge topic.
In the beginning (NATO, 1968): http://homepages.cs.ncl.ac.uk/brian.randell/NATO/nato1968.PD...
Hope this is of use to you.
A quick search turned up this list of several tools along that line: https://github.com/xyc/til/tree/master/react/devtools