In another case of politics creating scarcity was the artificial limit of 13,000 taxi medallions in NYC. Uber/Lyft fixed this scarcity by increasing the supply of taxi-like vehicles while lowering the cost of taking these vehicles. The price of a taxi medallion was $1.2 million prior to Uber/Lyft is now $700,000. With the political restriction on taxi medallions effectively eliminated, the "taxi landlords" lost out and the consumer gained.
London, NYC, DC, Boston, LA, SD, SF and other cities all have these restrictive zoning laws that artificially limit density to increase housing costs.
Economics Nobelest and NYTimes columnist Paul Krugman has discussed this.
Harvard Economist and city expert Edward Glaeser has written extensively on this topic. Financial Times columnist (with a BS and MS in Economics from Oxford) addresses this topic in "The Undercover Economist." He discusses how in the 1930's London had Green Belt (park) surrounding the city installed which has resulted in increased housing prices for landlords. But bad zoning laws that limit housing density has also contributed.
Edward Glaeser: Build Big Bill
Tim Harford: The Undercover Economist (2nd Ed).
This book has sold over 1 million copies
David Ricardo explained this in 1817.
David Ricardo: On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation
See Ch 2.3 - 2.5
The Eixample district in Catalonia has one of the highest population densities in the western world without high-rises: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eixample
Its population density is higher than the one in Manhattan and probably also any parts of the other cities you listed. It didn't achieve that by ditching zoning laws.
I lack the experience to comment on the situation that you mention relating to Catalan.