It applies to computers, because it's the computer itself that's preventing you from giving it certain classes of wrong instructions. I'm talking about enforcing things mechanically (type checking), not socially (design patterns, best practices, etc.).
If you consider that data to be a program, and the resulting messages to be errors, that is completely up to you.
As far as a typed high-level programming language is concerned, a syntax tree that doesn't type check isn't a program, so the question of what it does at runtime is simply ill-posed.