But Turing argued that if the machine could be shown to do the same tasks that humans can do, and act indistinguishable from a real human, then surely it's intelligent. Its internal properties don't matter, at least not to judge intelligence.
In practice, a good class of tests to use is a test that must evoke an emotional response to produce a sensical answer. An example is art interpretation. Questions involving allegory. Interpret a poem etc.
Important to note that whatever the challenge is, it must always be a new example - as in never been seen before. Anything that is already in the existing corpus, the computer can simply look up what is already out there. In other words, there is no one concrete thing you can use again and again repeatedly.
Example of test that would foil a computer: A personally written poem and having discussion about it.