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> I've never seen a dropper that didn't have ring 0 later pull down a payload that escalated privilege.

Probably because it isn't very useful to the attacker. Pwning the single user's account is sufficient. But I wouldn't bet on that being the case if it happened to me.

> what safety are you getting by just assuming UID separation failed and going through the rigmarole of reinstallation? The user data has already been exposed.

Most user data is not executable, so can probably safely be copied over. But if you don't wipe all executable software on the system it's hard to tell if some of it is still infected.

> Why should I even bother with the additional complexity of capability mode in my software, if we're all just assuming our defense has no depth.

Well, I'm talking about today's legacy desktop (and, to some extent, server) OSs, which have not prioritized user isolation because it hasn't really mattered ever since people stopped using timeshare systems.

Modern OSs that sandbox applications (e.g. ChromeOS, Android, iOS) are another story. I would expect that one Android app being malicious does not mean you have to wipe your phone, just uninstall the app. I would expect that ChromeOS can even recover from a full sandbox breakout, given secure boot.

But I don't trust Linux, Windows, or Mac OS desktops to be suitably hardened nor able to recover. And as wiping the whole system does not add very much cost over the cost of wiping the user account, it seems to me worth it to go all the way.




> Probably because it isn't very useful to the attacker.

Ring 0 is really important for building a botnet, which provides a very real incentive for the folks that actually write the droppers. Ideally (for the botnet owner) they establish persistence, then sell access by directing the bots to download additional malware under the control of botnet customers. Long story short: you don't get paid as much if you don't have ring 0.

> Most user data is not executable...

I was speaking from the perspective of the real purpose behind all this, protecting user data - and that the horse is already out of the barn. As far as cleanup, you are presupposing a loss of ring 0. If ring 0 is secure then killing all the user processes and performing a snapshot rollback of user space will definitely clear the malware.

> Well, I'm talking about today's legacy...

Ah, well then I agree. If your platform does not have user isolation, then you shouldn't rely on user isolation for security.

> And as wiping the whole system does not add very much cost...

Well we've got a catch-22. Because implementing security practices that do harden the system add a lot more cost to a hamfisted wipe. For example: On my laptop I've got five jails, a maze of netgraph nodes that result in a complex ruleset, host IPS, kerberos authentication and authorization, encrypted filesytems, close integration with TPM and various certificate based credentials. Just assuming that none of that works and doing a system wipe is a lot more work than simply popping in the latest Ubuntu dvd iso... consider the labor of rekeying alone.

So the advice to do a system wipe isn't bad, but it should be prefixed with: "If you've made no effort to secure your system and are completely relying upon the distro provider for security".


Sure, if you've set all that up and know what you're doing, then you're in a position to make your own judgment call and maybe you don't need to wipe the system. Earlier we were talking about "grandma" which I assumed was a metaphor for "person who doesn't know computers".


> Earlier we were talking about "grandma"...

Don't forget the grandson part of the metaphor, he is the one who will be making that judgement call. Do you remember how everybody would blow into the Nintendo cartridges, even after Nintendo explained why it was a bad idea? I have a feeling that helpdesk folks will continue to advise a system wipe, even if your running the latest Windows 25 with its formally proven microkernel... just to be safe.




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