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While there are probably 100 different ways to avoid this and retain secure traffic, I would venture to guess that the average Internet savvy-ness of Kazakhstan is pretty low, so using any of them would single you out for additional government attention (whether you're actually doing anything illegal or not).

That said, there's a remarkable tendency in countries as corrupt as Kazakhstan for a "shadow" telecom network to pop up. Just run in some fiber from a neighboring country on the down-low and distribute locally via microwave dish. Yeah, it's not exactly difficult to locate a powerful dish, but it's also not glaringly obvious so you can usually pay someone to look the other way. After all, the government officials want to look into everyone's communication, but if their own communication was ever intercepted, they would be the target of blackmail! They want to use the information they gather to blackmail citizens like the Stasi, not the other way around.

Of course, the flip side of that are the mobile phone networks operated by the Mexican drug cartels and ISIS. But the only surefire way to avoid government surveillance of this sort is to bypass government regulated telecoms entirely.

Kazakhstan is possibly more democratic than all its neighbours save maybe Kirghizstan (I'm not up do date on the current government position). More democratic as in I can't make up who's more of a despot between Putin and Nazarbayev, after all they both win open elections, albeit with an iron grip on medias... But then Kirghizstan is likely depending on its neighbours for connectivity (also landlocked).

The other neighbours are shining beacons of democracy such as Russia, China and Uzbekistan...

While Russia does encroach on various Internet liberties, it does so quite lazily so far. It does not have a great firewall, it does not have force-fed SSL certs, it does not crack down on the widespread VPN usage. When Roskomnadzor blacklists certain resources, Internet providers enforce it at their leisure, it seems, because different users report a resource either be blocked or not.

"The strictness of Russian laws is compensated by their optional enforcement", as they say.

In a smaller country like Kazakhstan such things are easier to enforce, probably.

Russia is also corrupt enough (especially in the rural areas) that you could probably find an Internet connection that wasn't actively monitored by Moscow authorities. I'm not saying it would be cheap, but it's definitely doable.

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