That said, there's a remarkable tendency in countries as corrupt as Kazakhstan for a "shadow" telecom network to pop up. Just run in some fiber from a neighboring country on the down-low and distribute locally via microwave dish. Yeah, it's not exactly difficult to locate a powerful dish, but it's also not glaringly obvious so you can usually pay someone to look the other way. After all, the government officials want to look into everyone's communication, but if their own communication was ever intercepted, they would be the target of blackmail! They want to use the information they gather to blackmail citizens like the Stasi, not the other way around.
Of course, the flip side of that are the mobile phone networks operated by the Mexican drug cartels and ISIS. But the only surefire way to avoid government surveillance of this sort is to bypass government regulated telecoms entirely.
The other neighbours are shining beacons of democracy such as Russia, China and Uzbekistan...
"The strictness of Russian laws is compensated by their optional enforcement", as they say.
In a smaller country like Kazakhstan such things are easier to enforce, probably.