If you think about the fact that looking at our brain you can see the evolutionary differences compared with other organism,s this starts to make a lot of sense. We have these different systems that have varying ages, with natural selection putting more pressure to develop a new system or enhance an old one, and the brain winding up almost like a tree trunk with different rings. It makes sense these smaller chunks do their own thing then "talk" to other parts. we even have language referencing it, "I'm of two minds about XYZ", and diseases like schizophrenia and hallucinations we trace to various parts of the brain not recognizing each other or not working properly together. We have studies that seem to indicate some decisions being made before we consciously think about them.
About a decade ago I really started to feel like I've begun to recognize different "aspects" and understand why I feel the way I do by understanding this theory. An example is, if I have a big decision, and I find that I'm undecided and really unhappy while trying to come to a conclusion, it's usually because I've actually already decided, and I'm unhappy because I'm arguing with myself, I'm not accepting that decision. Rarely have I been unhappy with the decision I'd already made, too.
He's a brilliant guy with some amazing work going back decades.
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modularity_of_mind
 - https://www.coursera.org/learn/science-of-meditation
And from a therapeutic perspective, I've gotten a lot out of Voice Dialogue - http://www.voicedialogueinternational.com/
Their book is geared toward practitioners but still quite good. I don't think you can do Voice Dialogue on your own. It helps to have a trained therapist.
I've also been reading Surfaces and Essences, also by Hofstadter, and recommend it as well.
What a thing to say.
He remains critical of neuroscience:
I've sometimes thought that AI would be solved only once Minsky passed from the scene.
I'm not sure how literally you mean this, but have you considered that old people are still humans, and after a certain point it's a lot more likely that they have a family to support, need more medical care, plus a bunch of other things? You can't just throw people out because they are no longer as fresh and efficient as they were in the beginning. Being old comes with it's own advantages. There's a place for everyone in the business.
I have one minor disagreement with something he said about in the past they would make some big improvement every few days, now it is every few years.
With all due respect, I think that he has it backwards. I have to some degree been working in AI and machine learning since the 1980s. I am blown away at how fast new good results are achieved.