Here's a comic that explains some of the issues:
Some other bits and pieces:
- If earning a lot was just a matter of intelligence, you'd have as many people earning $100k coming from ghettos, as from rich neighbourhoods. Because intelligence isn't correlated to the social status of your parents.
- Intelligence isn't knowledge. If you're walking on a path riddled with deadly hidden traps, your intelligence will not help you much. And if you're in a race (and career is a race against other people, and against time), even if you're bright, you'll be left in the dust by people who might not be as smart, but were better prepared by their parents and community.
Those are not the "outlying cases" as you call them. The outlying cases are when someone manages to use his/her intelligence to get over all those challenges and switch into a different social class. A cool book called "Outliers" comes to my mind now. It's one of the classics and I highly recommend it: http://www.amazon.com/Outliers-Story-Success-Malcolm-Gladwel...
Where did you get this idea? It's not true at all.
If I were a poor child, I'd be really furious on my parents that they didn't use condoms (or another method of contraception) to prevent the suffer that I'd be in from the start.
If you were a poor child, you might not even have been taught or have ever learned the self-awareness necessary to be angry at your parents for such a decision. Plus, I find it hard to believe that you'd have the exact same take on poverty and birth rates were you actually poor, and not simply hypothesizing about what it's like to be poor.