Literate programming hasn't "taken off" only in the sense that few people are performing the type of tranquil and rigorous work it was made for. Much of the (admittedly difficult) work being done by programmers today is in fact trivial. The difficulty comes from attempting to solve ill-specified or constantly changing requirements by glueing together a constantly changing set of frameworks and tools.
However, I would suggest that even in organization whose primary responsibility is wrangling with a messy soup of ill-defined requirements as fast as possible, there are often sub-problems whose treatment is amenable for the use of literate program, such as a library implementing a unique and non-trivial algorithm. In such cases, it can be worthwhile to carve out an island of tranquility, clear prose, and rigor, even if it means using slightly different tooling than the rest of the project.