Absolutely absurdly, there is no income limit to do a post-tax contribution to a non-roth-IRA, and then do an IRA to Roth-IRA conversion.
With no income limit you can:
- $6,000 post-tax dollars contribution to IRA, then do a Roth Conversion and file a IRS8606.
This is a Backdoor Roth Contribution
- $19,500 pre-tax dollars contribution to 401k.
- $xxxx company matching dollars to 401k.
- ($56,000 - $19,500 - $xxxx company match) contribution to After Tax 401k, then 401k to Roth 401k conversion
This is a Mega Backdoor Roth Contribution
- HSA $3,600
- The money converted into the Roth IRA (the $6,000/year) you paid tax on the principle going in, and are not taxed on it nor on capital gains coming out.
- The pre-tax 401k dollars (yours & matched) you did not pay tax on the principle going in, so you are taxed on the principle and capital gains coming out
- The after tax 401k contribution, converted to Roth 401k, you paid tax on the principle going in, and are not taxed on it nor on capital gains coming out.
- The HSA you did not pay tax on the principle going in, you are not taxed on capital gains or principle going out, as long as it is for qualified medical expenses.
- Do not get tricked into rolling over old employer 401k plans to a traditional (non-Roth) IRA. If you do this, there are very complex tax implications when doing backdoor Roth contributions. If you have an existing Traditional (non-Roth) IRA, do lots of reading or buy a couple hours of time from a "Fiduciary Financial Advisor". Do not ever trust a "Financial Advisor" under any circumstances. They do not have your best interest in mind, they have their commission in mind. Fiduciary Financial Advisors don't make a commission from your decisions. Make sure that if you go this route, you find someone who only does Fiduciary advising (and doesn't split time).
- You should carefully evaluate timing on doing a 401k to Roth 401k conversion of your withheld earnings and company contributions. If you have a year that you have lower income (back to school, travel, year off), you should probably do the conversion then. The money will be taxed as ordinary income, but then treated as Roth dollars coming out.
- Beware of employer provided retirement plans with high expense ratios. Anything over about 0.30% is a ripoff and you are wasting money. You have to dig deep into the fund information to find the expense ratio.
- Shockingly, many default investments are target-date plans, and they charge outrageous expense ratios, I have seen as high as 0.90%. Compounded over 30 years this will cost you a literal fortune.
If you are a high earner with no health issues, you should be saving $65,600 per year in the above tax advantaged strategies.
Look up the BogleHeads wiki and guide for where to invest the money (Total Market LOW cost, unmanaged mutual funds).
This is not financial advice, hire your own fiduciary financial advisor
- Principles and Practice Using C++ (http://www.stroustrup.com/programming.html)
- From Mathematics to Generic Programming (http://www.fm2gp.com/)
- The Scott Meyers books
Some of the Bjarne Stroustrup videos,
"Learning and Teaching Modern C++" - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fX2W3nNjJIo
Some of the Herb Sutter videos,
"Writing Good C++14... By Default" - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hEx5DNLWGgA
"Back to the Basics! Essentials of Modern C++ Style" - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xnqTKD8uD64
Some of the Kate Gregory videos,
"Stop Teaching C" - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YnWhqhNdYyk
"10 Core Guidelines You Need to Start Using Now" - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XkDEzfpdcSg
"It's Complicated" - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tTexD26jIN4